Book chapter Rodger, H., & Caldara, R. (in press). The Perception of Facial Expressions of Emotion. In J. Armony & P. Vuilleumier (Eds.). The Cambridge Handbook of Human Affective Neuroscience 2nd edition. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK.

Paparelli, A., Sokhn, N., Stacchi, L., Coutrot, A., Richoz, A.-R., & Caldara, R. (2024). Idiosyncratic Fixation Patterns generalize across Dynamic and Static Facial Expression Recognition. Scientific Reports. 14:16193. [PDF], Supplementary Information

Faghel-Soubeyrand, S., Richoz, A.-R., Waeber, D., Woodhams, J., Caldara, R., Gosselin, F., & Charest, I. (2024). Neural computations in prosopagnosia. Cerebral Cortex. [PDF]

Faghel-Soubeyrand, S., Ramon, M., Bamps, E., Zoia, M., Woodhams, J., Richoz, A.-R., Caldara, R., Gosselin, F., & Charest, I. (2024). Decoding face recognition abilities in the human brain. PNAS Nexus. [PDF]

Richoz, A.-R., Stacchi, L., Schaller, P., Lao, J., Papinutto, M., Ticcinelli, V., & Caldara, R. (2024). Recognizing Facial Expressions of Emotion amidst Noise: a Dynamic Advantage. Journal of Vision. 24(1):7, 1–22. [PDF]

de Lissa, P., Schaller, P., & Caldara, R. (2024). The Speed of Race. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience. 19(1), 1-11. [PDF]


Gingras, F., Estéphan, A., Fiset, D., Lingnan, H., Caldara, R., & Blais, C. (2023). Cultural Differences in Eye Movements for Face Recognition are not Modulated by Social Orientation. PLoS One. 18(3). [PDF]

Faghel-Soubeyrand, S., Ramon, M., Bamps, E., Zoia, M., Woodhams, J., Richoz, A.-R., Caldara, R., Gosselin, F., & Charest, I. (2023). Decoding face recognition abilities in the human brain. bioRxiv 2022.03.19.484245. [PDF]

Gavazzi, G., Noferini, C., Benedetti, V., Cotugno, M., Giovannelli, F., Caldara, R., Mascalchi, M., & Viggiano, M.P. (2023). Cultural Differences in Inhibitory Control: An ALE Meta-Analysis. Brain Sciences, 13(6):907. [PDF]

Schaller, P., Caldara, R., & Richoz, A.-R. (2023). Prosopagnosia Does Not Abolish Other-Race Effects. Neuropsychologia. [PDF]

Rodger, H., Sokhn, N., Lao, J., Liu, Y., & Caldara, R. (2023). Developmental eye movement strategies for decoding facial expressions of emotion. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology. [PDF]


Stacchi, L. , & Caldara, R. (2022).  Stimulus size modulates idiosyncratic neural face identity discrimination. Journal of Vision, 22(13):9, 1-16. [PDF]

Faghel-Soubeyrand, S., Richoz, A.-R., Waeber, D., Woodhams, J., Gosselin, F., Caldara, R., & Charest, I. (2022). Neural computations in prosopagnosia. bioRxiv 2022.12.13.519604. [PDF]

de Lissa, P., Watanabe, K., Gu, L., Ishii, T., Nakamura, K., Kimura, T., Sagasaki, A., & Caldara, R. (2022). Race categorization in noise. i-Perception13(4), 1–14. [PDF]

Book chapter Blais, C., & Caldara, R. (2022). Culture shapes face processing. In J. Chiao, S.-C. Li, R. Turner, S. Y. Lee-Tauler & B. Pringle (Eds.). The Oxford Handbook of Cultural Neuroscience and Global Mental Health. Oxford University Press: Oxford, UK. [PDF]


de Lissa, P., Sokhn, N., Lasrado, S., Tanaka, K., Watanabe, K., & Caldara, R. (2021). Rapid saccadic categorization of other-race faces. Journal of Vision, 21(12):1, 1-17. [PDF]

Ruffieux, S., Hwang, C. Junod, V., Caldara, R., Lalanne, D., Ruffieux, N. (2021). Tailoring assistive smart glasses according to pathologies of visually impaired individuals: an exploratory investigation on social needs and difficulties experienced by visually impaired individuals. Universal Access in the Information Society. [PDF]

Rodger, H., Lao, J., Stoll, C., Richoz, A. R., Pascalis, O., Dye, M., & Caldara, R. (2021). The recognition of facial expressions of emotion in deaf and hearing individuals. Heliyon, 7(5), e07018. [PDF]


Papinutto, M., Lao, J., Lalanne, D. & Caldara, R. (2020). Watchers do not follow the eye movements of Walkers. Vision Research, 176, 130-140. [PDF]

De Lissa, P., Caldara, R., Nicholls, V., & Miellet, S. (2020). In pursuit of visual attention: SSVEP frequency-tagging moving targets. PLoS One, 15(8). [PDF]

Stacchi L., Huguenin-Elie E., Caldara, R. & Ramon M (2020). Normative data for two challenging tests of face matching under ecological conditions. Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications, 5(1). [PDF]


Stacchi, L., Ramon, M., Lao, J., & Caldara, R. (2019). Neural Representations of Faces are Tuned to Eye Movements. Journal of Neuroscience, 39(21), 4113-4123. [PDF]

Stoll*, C., Rodger*, H., Lao*, J., Richoz, A,-R., J., Pascalis, O., Dye, M. W. G., & Caldara, R. (2019). Quantifying facial expression intensity and signal use in deaf signers. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 24(4), 346-355. [PDF] *Joint first authors

Sokhn, N, Wuilleret, A., & Caldara, R. (2019). Go/No-Go Saccadic Reaction Times Towards Visual Field Targets Differ Between Athletes and Nonathletes. Proceedings of the 2019 11th International Conference on Knowledge and Smart Technology (KST). 222-225. [PDF]

Ramon*, M., Sokhn*, N, & Caldara, R. (2019). Decisional space modulates visual categorization - evidence from saccadic reaction times. Cognition, 186, 42-49. [PDF] *Joint first authors

Nicholls, V. I., Jean-Charles, G., Lao, J., de Lissa, P., Caldara, R., & Miellet, S. (2019). Developing attentional control in naturalistic dynamic road crossing situations. Scientific Reports, 9: 4176. [PDF], Supplementary Information

Stacchi, L., Liu-Shuang, J., Ramon*, M., & Caldara*, R. (2019). Reliability of individual differences in neural face identity discrimination. NeuroImage, 189, 468-475. [PDF] *Joint last authors

Lüthold*, P., Lao*, J., He, L., Zhou, X., & Caldara, R. (2019). Waldo Reveals Cultural Differences in Return Fixations. Visual Cognition, 10(1), 817-830. [PDF] *Joint first authors

Stacchi, L., Huguenin-Elie, E., Caldara, R., & Ramon, M. (2019). Normative data for two tests of face matching under ecological conditions. PsyArXiv. [PDF]

Luisier, A.-C., Petitpierre, G., Clerc Bérod, A., Richoz, A.-R., Lao, J., Caldara, R., & Bensafi, M. (2019). Visual and Hedonic Perception of Food Stimuli in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and their Relationship to Food Neophobia.  Perception, 48(1-3), 197-213. [PDF]

Wyssen, A., Lao, J., Rodger, H., Humbel, N., Lennertz, J., Schuck, K., Isenschmid, B., Milos, G., Trier, S., Whinyates, K., Assion, H.-J., Ueberberg, B, Müller, J., Klauke, B., Teismann, T., Margraf, J., Juckel, G., Kossmann, C., Schneider, S., Caldara*, R., & Munsch*, S. (2019). Facial Emotion Recognition Abilities in Women Suffering from Eating Disorders. Psychosomatic Medicine: Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 81, 155-164.​ [PDF] *Joint last authors


Stacchi, L., Ramon, M., Lao, J., & Caldara, R. (2018). Neural Representations of Faces are Tuned to Eye Movements. bioRxiv. [PDF]

Richoz, A.-R., Lao, J., Pascalis, O., & Caldara, R. (2018). Tracking the recognition of static and dynamic facial expressions of emotion across the life span. Journal of Vision, 18(9):5, 1–27. [PDF]

Rodger, H., Lao, J., & Caldara, R. (2018). Quantifying facial expression signal and intensity use during development. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 174, 41-59. [PDF]

Ramon*, M., Sokhn*, N., Lao, J., & Caldara, R. (2018). Decisional space determines saccadic reaction times in healthy observers and acquired prosopagnosia. Cognitive Neuropsychology. [PDF], Supplementary Figure 1, Supplementary Figure 2, Supplementary Figure Captions *Joint first authors

Ramon, M., Sokhn, N., & Caldara, R. (2018). A decisional space account of saccadic reaction times towards personally familiar faces. bioRxiv. [PDF]

Malaspina, M., Albonico, A., Lao, J., Caldara, R., & Daini, R. (2018). Mapping self-face recognition strategies in congenital prosopagnosia. Neuropsychology. 32(2), 123-137. [PDF]


Turano*, M. T., Lao*, J., Richoz, A.-R., de Lissa, P., Degosciu, S. B. A., Viggiano, M. P., & Caldara, R. (2017). Fear boosts the early neural coding of faces. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 12(12), 1959-1971. [PDF] *Joint first authors

Ruffieux, S., Ruffieux, N., Caldara, R., & Lalanne, D. (2017). iKnowU – Exploring the Potential of Multimodal AR Smart Glasses for the Decoding and Rehabilitation of Face Processing in Clinical Populations. In R. Bernhaupt, G. Dalvi, A. Joshi, D. K. Balkrishan, J. O'Neill, & M. Winckler (Eds.), Human-Computer Interaction – INTERACT 2017: 16th IFIP TC 13 International Conference, Mumbai, India, September 25–29, 2017, Proceedings, Part III (pp. 423-432). Cham: Springer International Publishing. [PDF]

Bayet, L., Quinn, P. C., Laboissière, R., Caldara, R., Lee, K., & Pascalis, O. (2017). Fearful but not Happy Expressions Boost Face Detection in Human Infants. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B, 284 (1862), 1-9. [PDF], Supporting Information

Stoll, C., Palluel-Germain, R., Caldara, R., Lao, J., Dye, M. W. G., Aptel, F., & Pascalis, O. (2017). Face Recognition is Shaped by the Use of Sign Language. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education. 1-9. [PDF]

Review Caldara, R. (2017). Culture Reveals a Flexible System for Face Processing. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 26(3), 249-255. [PDF]

Fiset, D., Blais, C., Royer, J., Richoz, A.-R., Dugas, G., & Caldara, R. (2017). Mapping the impairment in decoding static facial expressions of emotion in prosopagnosia. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 12(8), 1334-1341. [PDF]

Garcia-Burgos, D., Lao, J., Munsch*, S., & Caldara*, R. (2017). Visual attention to food cues is differentially modulated by gustatory-hedonic and post-ingestive attributes. Food Research International, 97, 199-208. [PDF] *Joint last authors

Papinutto, M., Lao, J., Ramon, M., Caldara, R., & Miellet, S. (2017). The Facespan - the perceptual span for face recognition. Journal of Vision, 17(5):16, 1-12. [PDF]

Sokhn, N., Bertoli, F., & Caldara, R. (2017). A left eye bias for female faces. Proceedings of the 2017 9th International Conference on Knowledge and Smart Technology (KST). 274-278. [PDF]

Richoz, A.-R., Quinn, P. C., Hillairet de Boisferon, A., Berger, B., Loevenbruck, H., Lewkowicz, D. J., Lee, K., Dole, M., Caldara, R., & Pascalis, O. (2017). Audio-Visual Perception of Gender by Infants Emerges Earlier for Adult-Directed Speech. PLoS ONE, 12(1), 1-15. [PDF]

Lao, J., Miellet, S., Pernet, C., Sokhn, N., & Caldara, R. (2017). iMap4: An Open Source Toolbox for the Statistical Fixation Mapping of Eye Movement data with Linear Mixed Modeling. Behavior Research Methods, 49(2), 559-575. [PDF]


Ruffieux*, N., Ramon*, M., Lao*, J., Colombo, F., Stacchi, L., Borruat, X., Accolla, E., Annoni, J.-M. & Caldara, R. (2016). Residual Perception of Biological Motion in Cortical Blindness. Neuropsychologia, 93, 301-311. [PDF]. Supporting Movie 1, 2 *Joint first authors

Geangu*, E., Ichikawa*, H., Lao*, J., Kanazawa, S., Yamaguchi, M. K., Caldara*, R., & Turati*, C. (2016). Culture shapes 7-month-olds perceptual strategies in discriminating facial expressions of emotion. Current Biology, 26(14), R663-664. [PDF], Supporting Information *Joint first and last authors

Ramon, M., Miellet, S., Dzieciol, A., Konrad, B., Dresler*, M., & Caldara*, R. (2016). Super-Memorizers are not Super-Recognizers. PLoS ONE, 11(3). [PDF] *Joint last authors

Bovet, J., Lao, J., Caldara*, R., & Raymond*, M. (2016). Mapping females' bodily features of attractiveness. Scientific Reports, 6:18551. [PDF] *Joint last authors


de Ridder, J., Pihet, S., Suter, M., & Caldara, R. (2015). Empathy in institutionalized adolescents with callous-unemotional traits: an Ecological Momentary Assessment study of emotion recognition. Criminal Justice and Behavior 43(5), 653-669. [PDF]

Rodger, H., Vizioli, L., Ouyang, X., & Caldara, R. (2015). Mapping the Development of Facial Expression Recognition. Developmental Science, 18(6), 926-939. [PDF], Supporting Information

Richoz, A.-R., Jack, R. E., Garrod, O. G. B., Schyns, P. G. & Caldara, R. (2015). Reconstructing Dynamic Mental Models of Facial Expressions in Prosopagnosia Reveals Distinct Representations for Identity and Expression. Cortex, 65, 50-64. [PDF]


Fleming, D., Giordano, B., Caldara, R., & Belin, P. (2014). Language-Familiarity Effect for Speaker Discrimination without Comprehension. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111(38), 13795-13798. [PDF], Supporting Information

Miellet, S., Lao, J., & Caldara, R. (2014). An appropriate use of iMap produces correct statistical results: a reply to McManus (2013) iMAP and iMAP2 produce erroneous statistical maps of eye-movement differences. Perception, 43, 451-457. [PDF]

Miellet*, S., Caldara*, R., Raju, M., Gillberg, C., & Minnis, H (2014). Disinhibited Reactive Attachment Disorder symptoms impair social judgements from faces. Psychiatry Research, 215(3), 747-752. [PDF] *Joint first authors


Lao, J., Vizioli, L., & Caldara, R. (2013). Culture modulates the Temporal Dynamics of Global/Local Processing. Culture and Brain, 1(2), 158-174 [PDF]

Romeo, M., Vizioli, L., Breukink, M., Aganloo, K., Lao, J., Cotrufo, S., Caldara, R., & Morley, S. (2013). A functional-MRI paradigm to identify distinct cortical areas of facial function: a reliable localizer. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, 131(4), 527-533 [PDF]

Miellet, S., Vizioli, L., He, L., Zhou, X., & Caldara, R. (2013). Mapping face recognition information use across cultures. Frontiers in Perception Science, 4, 34. [PDF]

Jack, R., Garrod, O., Yu, H., Caldara, R., & Schyns, P. G. (2013). Differences outweigh commonalities in the communication of emotions across human cultures. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 110(3), E181-182. [PDF]. Reply to Sauter and Eisner: Commonalities outweigh differences in the communication of emotions across human cultures. [PDF]


Jack, R., Garrod, O., Yu, H., Caldara, R., & Schyns, P. G. (2012). Facial expressions of emotion are not culturally universal. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109 (19), 7241-4. [PDF], Supporting Information, Supporting Movie 1, Supporting Movie 2

Miellet, S., He, L., Zhou, X., Lao, J. & Caldara, R. (2012). When East meets West: gaze-contingent Blindspots abolish cultural diversity in eye movements for faces. Journal of Eye Movement Research, 5(2):5, 1-12 [PDF]

Jack, R., Caldara, R., & Schyns, P. (2012). Internal representations reveal cultural diversity in expectations of facial expressions of emotions. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 141 (1), 19-25 [PDF]


Rousselet, G. A., Pernet, C. R., Caldara, R., & Schyns, P. G. (2011). Visual object categorization in the brain: what can we really learn from ERP peaks?. Frontiers in human neuroscience, 5 -Commentary on- Dering, B., Martin, C. D., Moro, S., Pegna, A. J., & Thierry, G. (2011). Face-sensitive processes one hundred milliseconds after picture onset. Frontiers in human neuroscience, 5 [PDF]

Miellet, S., Caldara, R., & Schyns, P. (2011). Local Jekyll and global Hyde: The dual identity of face identification. Psychological Science, 22(12), 1518-1126 [PDF], Supporting Movie, Supporting Figure 1, Supporting Figure 2

Kelly, D. J., Jack, R., Miellet, S., De Luca, E., Foreman, K., & Caldara, R. (2011). Social experience does not abolish cultural diversity in eye movements. Frontiers in Psychology, 2, [PDF]

Kelly, D. J., Liu, S., Rodger, H., Miellet, S., Ge, L., & Caldara, R. (2011). Developing Cultural Differences in Face Processing. Developmental Science, 14(5), 1176-1184 [PDF], Supporting Figure 1, Supporting Figure 2a, Supportinf Figure 2b

Caldara, R., & Miellet, S. (2011). iMap: A Novel Method for Statistical Fixation Mapping of Eye Movement data. Behavior Research Methods, 43(3), 864-78 [PDF]


Vizioli, L., Roussellet, G., & Caldara, R. (2010). Neural repetition suppression to identity is abolished by other-race faces. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 107(46), 20081-20086 [PDF] Supporting Information

Rodger, H., Kelly, D. J., Blais, C., & Caldara, R. (2010). Inverting faces does not abolish cultural diversity in eye movements. Perception, 39(11), 1491-1503. [PDF]

Caldara, R. (2010). Beyond smiles: The impact of culture and race in embodying and decoding facial expressions. Behav Brain Sci, 33(6), 438-439. -Commentary on- Niedenthal, P. M., Mermillod, M., Maringer, M., & Hess, U. (2010). The Simulation of Smiles (SIMS) model: Embodied simulation and the meaning of facial expression. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 33(6), 417-433. [PDF]

Miellet, S., Zhou, X., He, L., Rodger, H., & Caldara, R. (2010). Investigating cultural diversity for extrafoveal information use in visual scenes. Journal of Vision. 10(6), 1-18. [PDF]

Caldara, R., Zhou, X., & Miellet, S. (2010). Putting Culture Under the ‘Spotlight’ Reveals Universal Information Use for Face Recognition. PLoS ONE, 5(3), e9708. [PDF], Supporting Figure 1, Supporting Movie 1

Kelly, D. J., Miellet, S., & Caldara, R. (2010). Culture shapes eye movements for visually homogeneous objects. Frontiers in Perception Science, 1. [PDF]

Morand, S. M., Grosbras, M.-H., Caldara, R., & Harvey, M. (2010). Looking away from faces: Influence of high-level visual processes on saccade programming. Journal of Vision, 10(3), 1-10. [PDF]

Vizioli, L., Foreman, K., Rousselet, G. A., & Caldara, R. (2010). Inverting faces elicits sensitivity to race on the N170 component: A cross-cultural study. Journal of Vision, 10(1), 1-23. [PDF], Supplementary Figure 1


Jack, R. E., Blais, C., Scheepers, C., Schyns, P. G., & Caldara, R. (2009). Cultural confusions show that facial expressions are not universal. Current Biology, 19(18), 1543-1548. [PDF], Supplemental Data

Caldara, R., & Seghier, M. L. (2009). The Fusiform Face Area responds automatically to statistical regularities optimal for face categorization. Human Brain Mapping, 30(5), 1615-1625. [PDF]


Blais, C., Jack, R. E., Scheepers, C., Fiset, D., & Caldara, R. (2008). Culture shapes how we look at faces. PLoS ONE, 3(8), e3022. [PDF], Supporting Figure 1, Supporting Movie 1, 2, 3


Bentin, S., Taylor, M. J., Rousselet, G. A., Itier, R. J., Caldara, R., Schyns, P. G., Jacques, C., & Rossion, B. (2007). Controlling interstimulus perceptual variance does not abolish N170 face sensitivity. Nature Neuroscience, 10(7), 801-802. [PDF], Supplementary Figure 1, 2, 3 and 4.


Flykt, A., & Caldara, R. (2006). Tracking fear in snake and spider fearful participants during visual search: A multi-response domain study. Cognition & Emotion, 20, 1075-1091. [PDF]

Pascalis, O., Kelly, D. J., & Caldara, R. (2006). What can bees really tell us about the face processing system in humans? The Journal of Experimental Biology, 209(Pt 16), 3266. [PDF] -Commentary on- Dyer, A. G., Neumeyer, C., & Chittka, L. (2005). Honeybee (Apis mellifera) vision can discriminate between and recognise images of human faces. The Journal of Experimental Biology, 208(Pt 24), 4709-4714. [PDF] -Author reply- [PDF]

Caldara, R., Seghier, M. L., Rossion, B., Lazeyras, F., Michel, C., & Hauert, C.-A. (2006). The fusiform face area is tuned for curvilinear patterns with more high-contrasted elements in the upper part. NeuroImage,31, 313-319. [PDF]

Schiltz, C., Sorger, B., Caldara, R., Ahmed, F., Mayer, E., Goebel, R., & Rossion, B. (2006). Impaired face discrimination in acquired prosopagnosia is associated with abnormal response to individual faces in the right middle fusiform gyrus. Cerebral Cortex, 16, 574-586. [PDF]

Caldara, R., & Abdi, H. (2006) Simulating the 'other-race' effect with autoassociative neural networks: further evidence in favor of the face-space model. Perception, 35, 659-670. [PDF]

Michel, C., Rossion, B., Han, J., Chung, C. & Caldara, R. (2006). Holistic processing is finely tuned for faces of our own race. Psychological Science 17, 608-615. [PDF]

Michel, C., Caldara, R., & Rossion, B. (2006). Same-race faces are perceived more holistically than other-race faces. Visual Cognition, 14, 55-73. [PDF]


Caldara, R., Schyns. P., Mayer, E., Smith, M., Gosselin, F., & Rossion, B. (2005). Does prosopagnosia take the eyes out of face representations? Evidence for a defect in representing diagnostic facial information following brain damage. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 17, 1652-1666. [PDF]

Deiber, M.-P., Ibanez, V., Caldara, R., Andrey, C., & Hauert, C.-A. (2005). Programming effectors and coordination in bimanual in-phase mirror finger movements. Cognitive Brain Research, 23, 374-386. [PDF]


Caldara, R., Jermann, F., Lopez, G., & Van der Linden, M. (2004). Is the N400 modality specific? A language and face processing study. Neuroreport, 15, 2589-2593. [PDF] [COLOR figures]

Caldara, R., Deiber, M.-P., Andrey, C., Michel, C. M., Thut, G., & Hauert, C.-A. (2004). Actual and mental motor preparation and execution: A spatiotemporal ERP study. Experimental Brain Research, 159, 389-399. [PDF]

Caldara, R., Rossion, B., Bovet, P., & Hauert, C.-A. (2004). Event-related potentials and time course of the 'other-race' face classification advantage. Neuroreport, 15, 905-910. [PDF]


Caldara, R., Thut, G., Servoir, P., Michel, C., Bovet, P., & Renault, B. (2003) Face versus non-face object perception and the "other-race" effect: A spatio-temporal ERP study. Clinical Neurophysiology, 114(3), 515-528. [PDF]

Rossion, B., Caldara, R., Seghier, M., Schuller, A.-M., Lazeyras, F., & Mayer, J. (2003). A network of occipito-temporal face-sensitive areas besides the right middle fusiform gyrus is necessary for normal face processing. Brain, 126(11), 2381-2395. [PDF]


Deiber, M.-P., Caldara, R., Ibanez, V., & Hauert, C.-A. (2001). Alpha band power changes in unimanual and bimanual movements, and during motor transitions. Clinical Neurophysiology, 112(8), 1419-1435. [PDF]


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